## General Right Triangle Word Problems

Howard is designing a chair swing ride. The swing ropes are 4 meters long, and in full swing, they tilt in an angle of 23°. Howard wants the chairs to be 3.5 meters above the ground in full swing.

How tall should the pole of the swing ride be?

In order to do this problem, we have to apply the law of sines.

sin (67°) / x = sin (90°) / 4
x = 3.68

Where does 67° come from?
If we draw a line perpendicular to the pole to the hypotenuse, we got a 90° angle. So, 180°- (90° + 23°) = 67°.

We haven’t finished yet, we need to add x to 3.5 because they ask the entire length of the pole.
3.68 m + 3.5 m = 7.18 m

How tall should the pole of the swing ride be?

## VSEPR Model

Valence

Shell

Electron

Pair

Repulsion

VSEPR is a model used in Chemistry in order to predict a geometric shape of molecules based on the number of valence electrons.

We can classify molecules into 7 main geometric shapes:

• Linear                                      180°                    Non-Polar
• Bent                                         104.5°                Polar
• Trigonal Planar                   120°                    Non-Polar
• Trigonal Pyramidal           107.3°                Polar
• Tetrahedral                          109.5°                Non-Polar
• Trigonal Bipyramidal       90°/ 120°         Non-Polar
• Octahedral                           90°                      Non-Polar

Before figuring out any of those shapes, we need to draw Lewis Dot Diagram first. Let’s look at some examples:

Based on its Lewis Dot structure, we can classify HCN as Linear.

As you can see above, Sulfur has 5 bonds. So, we would classify this as Trigonal Bipyramidal.

Now, in this case, Sulfur has only 2 bonds. We would classify this as Bent. Why? HCN also has only 2 bonds but classified as Linear. That is because there are two extra pairs of electrons in the middle atom so those two pairs of electrons will push each of the two bonds down, creating an angle.

## Wrapping up the history

In our literacy round 1 final assessment of the history of America. We were asked to do projects related to the history of America.

In one of the texts that we’ve read is about the Great Depression. So, I decided to write a rhetorical analysis essay on Franklin Delano Roosevelt inaugural speech. Another work I did was to write an opinion article on Childish Gambino’s hit: ‘This is America’. To know more about what is my opinion of Gambino’s music video, go and check this out:

## Exponential Vs Linear Growth over time

Aril and Dita are wealthy Norwegian business owners who make monthly donations to international disaster relief.

• Aril donated 150 Norwegian kroner  the first month and the cumulative number of Norwegian kroner she has donated increases by a factor of 2.5 each month.
• Dita donated 300 KR the first month and the cumulative number of Norwegian kroner she has donated increases by 400 KR each month.
They started making donations at the same time, and they both make their monthly donations at the beginning of each month.

What is the first month in which Aril’s cumulative donation exceeds Dita’s cumulative donation?

How do we go about solving this problem? First, let’s identify which statement describes exponential and which statement describes linear growth.

Exponential growth is a growth whose rate is rapid in proportion to the function’s current value. Linear growth is a growth whose rate is constant over time.

Based on the context, we can say that Aril’s donation is an exponential growth and can be model by an equation:

y = 150 * (2.5)^(x-1)

And Dita’s donation is a linear growth and can be modeled as:

y = 300 + 400(x-1)

Why (x-1)? Because in the first month which is x, Aril and Dita have already donated 150 KR and 300 KR respectively. Therefore, we have to subtract the first month to know the rate of the following months.

Now, let’s figure out which month Aril’s donation exceeds Dita’s donation. Let’s think of it graphically.

We know that exponential growth started off slowly and will eventually outreach linear growth; therefore, we have to look for its intersection.

The two lines intersect at 3.28, 1212.17. Therefore, we can conclude that at month 4, Aril’s donation will exceed Dita’s.

What is the first month in which Aril’s cumulative donation exceeds Dita’s cumulative donation?

## Flames!!

After the incredible physics course last year, we’re now taking an introductory chemistry class with our new facilitator.

We’re going through lessons such as scientific methods, isotopes, moles, ions, electron configuration, and emissions.

Our latest lesson was on emission; we learned how atoms emitted energy to visible colors when it becomes excited.  So, let’s break it down. Throughout history, scientists had been debating whether lights act as waves or particles. But, in this unit, we’re learning when lights act as waves. Ok, what does that have to do with emissions? So, when some amount of energy hits an atom, some of its electrons become excited and jump to a higher energy orbital or excited state. Then, those excited electrons will release the energy as photons which are the visible colors and jumped back to its ground state. Those visible colors are release with different wavelengths that produce different colors.

We also did a flame test lab on this lesson. It’s fun because..we get to wear those lab coats and it looks cool. Actually, there’s more than that. First of all, we lit up the Bunsen burner with lighters, then we put the different compounds of chloride and see observe the changes in the flame colors. Those compounds are barium, calcium, copper II, lithium, potassium, strontium, and an unknown #1. Then, we have to record all the data of different compounds and write a lab report for it.

My personal favorite is copper II:

## Physics Behind Dr. Strange’s superpowers

Doctor Strange

Dr. Stephen Strange known as Dr. Strange is a fictional character appeared in the Marvel Comics and debuted in 2016 as one of the superheroes in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. His first movie, “Doctor Strange” initially released on November 4, 2016, was a successful science fiction movie starring very passionate actors and very quality content. In the movie, Dr. Strange suffered from a severe traffic accident caused him to broke both of his hands. Then, he decided to go on the journey of finding a cure to his broken hands; his last choice was to get a mystic healer from the “Ancient One”. In the process of healing; he’s also learning mystical arts from the ancient one, gaining his superpowers in various ways in order to protect this universe. All of his superpowers seem like magic; however, it isn’t really magic; therefore, let’s go debunk Dr. Strange’s superpowers by science!

Astral Projection

One of Dr. Strange best superpowers is Astral Projection. Astral projection is allowing your body to travel in a spirit form. To do that, one must be separated completely from the physical form. However, this is not really a scientific event that can be proved, but rather a psychological theory. Nevertheless, this superpower is fantastic in a sense that it can allow you do different things in your body form and your spirit form. This might happen a lot to those who usually do meditation.

The Eye of Agamotto

An incredible item that wore by Dr. Strange is the eye of agamotto. It allows for time manipulation, dimensional travel, and see through illusions and lies. As seen in one of Dr. Strange’s scenes; he has the ability to travel through a hole and appear in another place and that is called “Dimensional Travel”. The eye of agamotto makes that happen! According to a physicist Lisa Randall, “the only possible interaction between dimensions is through particles.” In the movie, Dr. Strange manipulates the particles inside the eye of agamotto that can hop into other dimensions, then those particles can create a black hole for him to travel through! Since we know that particle is the only way to interact between dimension, it is possible for dimensional travel if we can manipulate those particles.

As said that the eye of agamotto can also enable the user to see through the illusion. For example, one of the scenes showed the illusion of a city in various dimensions:

People might question what are these weird dimensions of the city. To explain, Ancient one once said, “We harness energy and shape reality.” This illusion is not magic and so does every magician, they did not create something that is “magic” instead they “shape the reality” for people to fall for. There’s no such thing called “magic”; however, because our perception is limited, magicians are trying to shape and alter it so that we believe in it. They did not change reality, only perceptions did. That same thing applies to Dr. Strange’s ability to see through the illusion, the image above is neither upside down or sideway; however, it “appears that way through a refracted repeating image.” So, how do they shape reality? Well, when Dr. Strange first met with the Ancient One, he saw crystal lights. It started with photons; according to a scientist Mikhail Lucan, “They created a special medium in which photons interacted so strongly that they began to act as though they had mass and banded together.” When photons interact so strongly, it becomes atoms, then they become solidified light or light crystals. When Dr. Strange first knows how to use his power he created a crystal wall:

As you can see here, there are multiple Dr. Strange’s faces on that wall which basically means it is refracted repeating image. In addition, the city’s image case is when it happens on a bigger scale!

Cloak of Levitation

Last but not least, an item that is worn by Dr. Strange is the cloak of levitation. It is capable of giving its master the ability to fly, providing aids and assistance during battle, and even have emotional feeling and affection with its master! Well, that’s unexplainable. There is a possible chance that the cloak is made out of a unique material that allows that master to fly; however, having affection and feelings are sort of magic since it is not a living object. It doesn’t really follow any science rules and that is normal for movies. In order for any science fiction movie to look incredible, something in it have to look impossible!

To sum up, Dr. Strange is capable of doing awesome super powers and following physics rules. At the same time, the MCU is a really well-known company of creating powers that are relevant to our science rules and using it as an entertainment and also education for all ages.

Works Cited

## Greek Mythology Project

In literacy, we’ve been learning and researching about Ancient civilization specifically Ancient Greek; therefore, we were assigned to write a research report about Ancient Greek mythology and Greek god or goddess. Everyone was assigned a god/goddess to do research about and I’m the goddess of marriage, women, and childbirth, HERA. Researching about the family trees of Greek gods/goddesses were quite complicating, but managed to pull out vital information about them. Here is my research report about my goddess:

GODDESS: HERA

General Information

HERA was one of the goddesses of the Olympian gods. Name “HERA” derived from a baby girl’s name which means “protectress. Therefore, Hera was the queen of Greek gods with certain roles including goddess of marriage, childbirth, and women. She had super strength of immortality, resistance to injury, and since she is the goddess of marriage, she had the power to bless or curse marriages; furthermore, she also had the ability to protect women from all causes and to help preserve women’s health longer. She didn’t have the physical weapons like swords or bows, all she had was the power of her cleverness and affection. This queen of heaven was found at Mount Olympus where most gods and goddesses live.

Family and Relatives

HERA was a daughter of the Cronus and Rhea along with her siblings: Poseidon, Hades, Zeus, Hestia, and Demeter. She married to Zeus (her brother) and gave birth to five children including Eileithyia, Ares, Hebe, Hephaestus, and Eris.

History

HERA had been swallowed by her father, Cronus, at birth. However, she was saved by Zeus who tricked and poisoned him to vomit her out. Her siblings also suffered the same fate of getting swallowed by their father. The reason was that there had been a prophecy saying that Cronus will be deposed by his children. Therefore, to prevent that, he swallowed each and every single one of his children at birth. However, when it was Zeus’s turn, Rhea decided to switch Zeus and let Cronus swallowed a rock instead. Then, when Zeus grew up, he successfully overthrew his father and became the king of the gods. HERA didn’t have many memories during her childhood because she spent most of her time inside her father’s stomach.

Physical appearance and symbols

HERA was described as stunningly beautiful. Everything that was on her body was pure gold including her sandals, chariot, and throne. She wore a high cylindrical crown! She always dressed up elegantly, feminine, but not exotic fashion. She was serious about her appearance and no one could beat her on that; she was considered purely beautiful even topping the beauty of Aphrodite. HERA’s most known sacred animals are cuckoo and peacock. Cuckoo symbolized Zeus’s love for HERA because he disguised himself as a cuckoo as he first approached her. Since HERA was immortal, peacock exemplified immortality. Other minor symbolisms were: lily flower which is believed came from HERA’s breast milk when she gave births, pomegranate which symbolized fertility since she was the goddess of childbirth.

Celebrations

To honor HERA, they created a game called “Heraia” that was like Olympic, but only women can participate which is a foot-race. They celebrated every four years in August. HERA’s Roman name was JUNO. Likewise, the month “June” was named after her; furthermore, since she was the goddess of marriage, most people prefer to get married in the month of June.

Important Myth

On the other hand, there was one major myth that involved HERA. It was called the tale of HERA and Heracles or Hercules. To start, Hercules was a son of Zeus and a mortal woman named Alcmene. Since HERA was known for her vengeful character, Hercules and she never had a good relationship. She was always jealous of Zeus’s extramarital affair and illicit child and Hercules was one of them. Due to HERA’s jealousy, she made Hercules’s life miserable. She hated him so so much that she caused troubles at every opportunity. For instance, as part of his sentence, he had to do 12 labors, but HERA didn’t let it go smoothly. She stirred up the Amazons against him or sent gadfly to destroy the herd in one of his labors. After these labors, he was known for Greece’s greatest hero which increased HERA’s hatred towards him to its ultimate. Even after the labors finished, HERA always got into his way, notably, when the hero sailed the sea, she sent violent storms that cast the boat around like a toy. Hercules did try to calm situations between this angry queen and him down, but HERA doesn’t seem to lessen her anger until he died. Once Hercules died, HERA’s hatred seems to cool down, surprisingly, after he died and ascended to the Olympus, he married to Hebe, HERA’s daughter!

Conclusion

To sum up, HERA was one of the most respected goddesses. Despite her vengeful character, she was a symbol of fidelity because she was always faithful towards her loved ones. Once again, she was a goddess of marriage, childbirth, and women. However, don’t ever forget her vindictive characteristics!

Works Cited

“Goddess Symbols: Hera.” Goddess Symbols: Hera Symbols and Myths., www.goddessgift.com/goddess-myths/goddess_symbols_hera.htm.

“Greek Stories about Hera-The Sacred Wedding of Zeus and Hera.” Greek Gods, www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/hera/myths/zeus-hera-wedding/.

“Hera’s Powers.” Hera the Supreme Goddess, griffinquestproject.weebly.com/heras-powers.html.

“Hera: Goddess of Love and Marriage.” Crystal Wind™, www.crystalwind.ca/mystical-magical/pantheons-and-myths/greek/hera-goddess-of-love-and-marriage.

“Queen Hera (Juno), the Olympian Goddess of Marriage.” Greek Gods, www.greek-gods.info/greek-gods/hera/.

## Women in STEM

Background

Rachel Louise Carson or Rachel Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist who fell in nature and ocean in her whole life. Rachel grew up in a simple family in the rural river town of Springdale, Pennsylvania, just up the Allegheny River from Pittsburgh. She was a daughter of Maria Frazier (Mclean) and Robert Warden Carson, an insurance salesman. Unfortunately, she died on April 14, 1964 (Aged 56) at Silver Spring, Maryland, the U.S. due to Breast Cancer.

Education

Rachel Carson joined Pennsylvania college, currently known as Chatham University from 1925-1929, originally going to major in English, but changed and graduated as a biologist. She then continued to prior her knowledge of biology by majored in zoology and genetics at Johns Hopkins University (1929-1932).

Relationship

Carson did not pursue any relationship as husband and wife; however, she has a very good friendship with her best friend, Dorothy Freeman. This solid friendship lasts for the rest of her life and they mostly communicated by letters. Over the course of 12 years, they’ve exchanged approximately around 900 letters.

Early Career and Publications

Carson took a position as an aquatic biologist which she had to analyze, report field data on fish populations, to write brochures and other pieces of literature for the public for the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries. She remained in the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries also known as U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service until 1952.

She then continued in her path of biology by being a member of the MBL (Marine Biology Laboratory) corporation from 1952 until her death.

Beginning in the 1940s, Carson and other scientists grew concerned about government pest-control programs that used DDT and other synthetic chemicals. Those chemicals hurt far more species than just mosquitoes and fire ants. Silent Spring, which took its title from Carson’s fear of a spring without chirping birds, played a large role in inspiring the modern environmental movement regarding this issue.

Accomplishments

Carson was well-known for her writings on environmental pollutions and natural history of the ocean.

She became an author of four books includes:

• Under the Sea Wind (1941)

Under the Sea Wind was Carson’s first remarkable work celebrating the mysteries and beauties of birds and sea creatures in their habitats. It is well-known as one of America’s greatest nature masterpiece.

• The Sea Around Us (1951)

The Sea Around Us preceded by Under the Sea Wind was a prize-winning and best-selling book by this best-known author in nature. This book articulated the importance of our watery globe. She explained mountains and canyons secrecy hiding below the ocean and how they were found. She continued to further introduce us to islands, global winds, rain, currents, and tides. She merged her writing with imaginations, facts, and expert knowledge. This book made her become an international writer of nature and ocean’s significance.

• The Edge of the Sea (1955)

The Edge of the Sea has always been a book that Rachel wanted to write about. It’s a guidebook to the ocean; however, it turned out to be more than just a guidebook. It introduced a world of teeming life where the sea meets the land. A scientifically accurate exploration of the ecology of Atlantic seashore and what we can find at the edge of the sea.

• Silent Spring (1962)

Silent Spring is an environmental science book that documented adverse effects of pesticide used. She accused the chemical industry of spreading misinformation for the world to accept the use of pesticides.

Unfortunately, Carson died two years after Silent Spring published. She died before she could see any substantive results from her work on this issue, but she left behind some of the most influential environmental writings ever published. Her silent inspiration through writings is witnessed by the world by celebrating ‘Earth Day’ every April 22 and establishing a program called Responsible Care by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (now American Chemistry Council) in 1988, to help the chemical industry improve its safe management of chemicals from manufacture to disposal.

## ‘The Truth Behind Human Trafficking’

If you do a google image search of “human trafficking” the majority of the images are of women.

We often refer to human trafficking as the act of abduction in the favor of prostitution, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, organ removal, and many other types of exploitations. But, little do we know that it’s almost entirely inadequate to women, WOMEN and issued on sex trafficking and sexual slavery.

A phrase elders in Cambodia often said is, ‘យើងស្រី កុំស្លៀកខ្លី ដើរលេងយប់ច្រើនពេក ប្រយ័ត្នគេចាប់។’ It translated as, ‘As a woman, don’t wear too short, don’t stay out at late night or you’ll get abduct.’ This crisis intimidates women every time, every night.

Women seem to be self-publicist their appearance toward others (men) – and that’s the normal thing. There shouldn’t be any criticism upon that. However, men interpret it in a different way. It made them think that these women deserve to be one of theirs.

Late at night, along with some streets of Phnom Penh, you would see groups of motos full of men. A girl passed by, they commented unsettling comments like, ‘What a nice leg you’ve got there’, ‘Can I have your number?’. These are something women are frightened of, it doesn’t mandatory mean that human trafficking occurs. However, it’s just something to be aware of to everybody especially women.

According to UN sustainable development, some 71% of human trafficking victims are female, hence, one-third of them are girls. Women comprise a large proportion of the overall number of people trafficked, that is transferred within or across national borders from their place of habitual residence.

Besides that, approximately 80% of the overall trafficking involves sexual exploitation, and 19% involves labor exploitation. Human trafficking is the third leading crime in the world after drugs and arms trades.

‘More People had started to become migrants and refugees which is a greater risk of human trafficking.’ Corresponding to the report during UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants in New York.

Human trafficking is global; however, is almost entirely confined to women. It is the modern form of slavery. They are tricked that they’ll get a better job but result to keep as slaves.

Simultaneously, women are more likely to become the victims because we stereotyped them. There is, of course, Men trafficking in the favor of forced labor in agriculture, fishing, and construction industries. However, it’s just rare. Furthermore, we live in a world that is dominated by men, therefore, the perspective of seeing women as victims in cases like abduction, harassment, and trafficking is likely to be acknowledged.

Women, once again feel contaminated because the world is targeting them. Seeing them as the ‘victim’. Can we be more disinterested? Can we set this policy of not referring to women as victims of crimes? It’s quite disappointing to see how this contemporary world continues to portray this devastating stereotype.

“It is not surprising that women are trafficked more often than men; it is what I would have assumed. However, it is both unfortunate and disappointing. Women are taught to take care of themselves, be on the lookout, be on the defense, not trust people at first, etc. but yet they still end up being the victim of trafficking and other crimes. I think it ultimately comes down to the fact that many men are physically stronger than women, and as such, women are unable to defend themselves from the perpetrators. I also think that often there are family members who are involved or friends who gain a woman’s trust, but who are really planning to traffick her for money. Or sometimes a woman thinks she is signing up for another job, often to make money for herself and her family, when in fact, it is a hoax.” – Caroline Bell, female, Lead Learning Facilitator at the Liger Leadership Academy.

Now, let’s see male’s perspective towards this.

“When I think of the term human trafficking, in modern times, I definitely think mainly of women, but I think it goes back to slavery, which wasn’t limited to women. However, I don’t know a lot of examples in the news in the past 20-30 years of human trafficking that included men. Furthermore, I personally don’t always think of women as victims, but I think in general we live in a male-dominated society, most politicians and CEOs, etc. are male and I think that contributes to some people viewing women as victims.” – Jeff Boucher, male, Learning Facilitator at the Liger Leadership Academy.

We live in a world that is dominated by men. It has always been that way because men are physically larger and stronger. That said, I think we now live in a world where physical size and strength are not important for survival. Women are just as capable in every way. Yes, I believe that women suffer MUCH more than men when it comes to rape and human trafficking which is not a stereotype, but a fact. Men still use their physical advantage to abuse women and the worst part is that in the world most laws are created by and enforced by men so that women’s rights have not been protected. In terms of the world seeing women as victims, if that were true, then laws should change to protect them.  Many cultures (including Khmer) do not value girls and women the same as boys and men.  They do not allow them the same freedom of choosing their profession and spouse, same educational opportunities, and different expectations for them.” – Jan Krieger, male, Teacher

All these perspectives give insight into why trafficking victims are mostly female. Neither way, all purposes of women trafficking should never be considered as an existence. No one deserves to be raped, sold, captured by anyone. Furthermore, we’re not trying to convey the idea of us stereotyped women in crimes.

Currently, this topic emerges everywhere. It is a controversial and important issue. As a result, there are many campaigns and organizations that have been established to combat and convince people to fight against this tragic form of trade.

Likewise, there is a small campaign participated by some popular celebrities to stop human trafficking called, “Shine a Light on Slavery Day” which engaged hundreds of thousands of people who associated with to call to action by drawing a red “X” on their hand and posting to social media.

Alternatively, there are uncountable number of NGOs that work to combat this catastrophic crime as well. For instance, ‘Polaris’ is one of the most influential groups that works to combat human trafficking by setting policies and creating advocacies to end this modern-day form of slavery. There are way more than just described of how these NGOs care about us. We all care about you, you’re not alone. Let’s stop reading these statistics and start ending this misery. NO ONE can own anyone.